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Beginning in the 1st century CE, fragments of Northern Old Arabic are attested in the Nabataean script across northern Arabia.By the 4th century CE, the Nabataean Aramaic writing system had come to express varieties of Arabic other than that of the Nabataeans.It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula.The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic.
Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages (Aramaic, Hebrew, Ugaritic and Phoenician), the Ancient South Arabian languages, and various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic.In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family (e.g. It is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages (non-Central Semitic languages) were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time.To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages.Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times.During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it.