What is the limitation of relative dating in biology
Caytoniales and angiosperms diverged from a common ancestor with Bennettitales in the Lower Triassic according to Cascales-Miñana et al. Why assume that flowering plants constitute a single clade first appearing 256 MYA without discussing Mathews (2009), Mathews et al. Discerning Fingerprints of Developmental Regulation: This chapter of the essay considers experimental approaches and paleobiological evidence drawn from the research perspective of evo-devo, which is necessary to identify lineages of seed plants involved in the origin and evolution of flowering plants. D., and Mark's help at the delnortea beds is gratefully acknowledged. the [angiosperm] clade probably first appeared during Triassic times," which is a stratigraphically-perplexing Gordian Knot. The preceding statement is quoted from page 399 of David Grimaldi and Michael S. This challenging and daunting approach was facilitated by ready access to several world class research libraries at the University of California, Berkeley. The enigmatic Paleozoic plants Spermopteris and Phasmatocycas reconsidered. The image was captured in 1981 while the author was visiting Indiana University. both within and outside the paradigm of transcription-encoding factors ..." (page 129, Niklas 2006). The family Degeneriaceae was discovered in 1942 by I. Endress (1994, 2001 [a book chapter and two papers], 2004), Bateman et al. Several developmental gene families, TFs, and enzymes involved in hormone signaling cascades are known in invertebrates based in part, on experimental studies of the Drosophila model arthropod (S. Wings, halteres, arachnid spinnerets, and insect legs are all organs that develop from limb fields of cells where Ubx expression is prevalent (S. Several insect systematists studying beetle (Coleoptera) evolution are employing some genes and proteins of the insect development tool kit in their phylogenetic analyses (Gómez-Zurita and Galián 2005). The three essays on the succeeding web pages are written from this research perspective. Gómez-Zurita and Galián (2005) discuss the utility of molecular phylogenetic characters appearing in the entomological literature in a review paper, which is organized along the lines of Floyd and Bowman (2007) for land plants (see section below). Understanding the land plant developmental tool kit and gene regulation from a deep time research perspective ties-in with models of cone and floral organization, cell geometry and regulation of growth from SAMs, paleobiology of homeodomain TF trafficking, phyllotaxis, leaf development, and morphogenesis of fertile organs. Taylor (2009), Xin Wang (2009), Dilcher (2010), Magallón (2010), Stephen A. Stewart and Rothwell (1993) recapitulated the main steps needed to form the conduplicate carpel using glossopterid-, other seed fern-, and early angiosperm fossils as examples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 521 pp., with additional comments distilled from E. Further, White proposed that the glossopterid Megafructi were a second basal group upon which ranalian angiosperms, monocotyledonous flowering plants including Pandanus (Pandanaceae, Pandanales, Arecidae), Williamsonia (a bennettitalean), additional cycads, and certain other angiosperms evolved (M. Principal morphologic innovations in angiosperms and gymnosperms according to Krassilov (1997) are: Paleoherb hypothesis. Burger published a paper in 1981 suggesting that the earliest angiosperms were monocotyledonous plants. Molecular tracers include naturally occurring but fossilized triterpenoids known as oleanone triterpanes (oleananes). These TSBs are a stratigraphically-important but "inconvenient truth," which is often buried or ignored in modern syntheses on the origin and evolution of flowering plants. Flowers and simple cones are reproductive short- (spur-) shoots according to Christianson and Jernstedt (2009). A novel "Mosaic Theory for the Evolution of the Dimorphic Perianth" proposed by Warner et al. Melville develops his earlier ideas on a Gonophyll Theory (1969) in a review published in 1983 that proposes a Permian origin of angiosperms from glossopterids. Rothwell (1993), Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants (second edition). Mary White (1986) proposes that glossopterid Microfructi were basal to several parallel but sometimes branching and reticulate lines of evolution leading to the Caytoniales, angiosperms, Cycas (Cycadaceae, Cycadales), Podocarpaceae (Podocarpales), Araucariaceae (Araucariales), and certain catkin-bearing angiosperms including the Casuarinaceae. The polyphyletic-polychromic-polytopic hypothesis (Z.-Y. Cyclic angiospermization is reviewed by Krassilov (1997) and Ponomarenko (1998) within the context of a polyphyletic origin of angiosperms. Clifford (1982), The Monocotyledons: A Comparative Study. A discussion of this theory and how it links to the anthophyte hypothesis is presented by T. A few elements of ideas proposed by Cascales-Miñana et al. Armen Takhtajan's often criticized proposal on a "neotenous" origin of flowering plants (1969, 1976, and previous papers) is my starting place. Equally puzzling is that despite intense interest in the origins of seed plants and angiosperms throughout the entire last century, few have looked at the problems from a life cycle evo-devo perspective, with perhaps one exception (Takhtajan 1976), who alluded to neoteny as one of the possible mechanisms contributing to the origin of angiosperms." "Some authors seem curiously determined to prove that pre-Cretaceous fossils are crown-group angiosperms, but for understanding most aspects of the origin of angiosperms [other than their age], close stem relatives would be far more significant ..." (page 318, J. Doyle 2012) Based on four decades of study of the problem by Professor Emeritus J. Doyle, where on the Pangaean continent (and when) do students of angio-ovuly and the origin of flowering plants focus the search for "close stem relatives" of the group? Surprising and often ignored clues shedding light on the shadowy origin of flowering plants originate from oil and gas exploration data and the geochemistry of taxon-specific biomarkers (TSBs) and molecular traces, which are recoverable from mud logs of well boreholes, or from coal balls, compressions, and permineralizations (Moldowan and Jacobson 2002). Mud-loggers are able to ascertain higher plant input into a core segment of a stratigraphic horizon pulled-up from the well-site gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and microscopic analysis of animal and plant microfossils including pollen and vascular plant fragments in core samples. Rudall (2006), Morphological and molecular phylogenetic context of the angiosperms: contrasting the 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches used to infer the likely characteristics of the first flowers, Journal of Experimental Botany 57(13): 3471-3503. Flowering plants probably did not appear "suddenly," and the concept of a so-called "first flower" including proposals published by Albert et al. The reproductive short- (spur-) shoots of these Permo-carboniferous seed plants were equivalent to theoretical constructs of the protoflower proposed by Leppik (1960, 1968).
Evolutionary-development of arthropod- and plant organs and molecular tool kits is "highly dynamic in evolutionary time" involving the evolution of cis-acting promoters (page 83, Baum 1998). Reviews by Rothwell (1987), Arthur (2002), Meyerowitz (2002), Becker and Theißen (Figure 1, page 468, 2003), Niklas (2006), Rothwell et al. A key paper on the control of insect body size by Nijhout (2003) outlines the molecular mechanisms involving cis-acting TFs and hormones and environmental controls (nutrition and temperature) behind growth and cell division in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Ontogeny is thus the creative force behind botanical diversification, and small modifications at the genetic level may have a disproportionate effect on plant form as their consequences cascade and multiply through development. Kenrick (1997), Diverted development of reproductive organs: a source of morphological innovation in land plants, Plant Systematics and Evolution 206: 161-174. From the research perspectives of insect- and floral biology, and paleoentomology and floral morphology, scaling data might be applied to understanding and computing theoretical morphospace of whole invertebrate and/or plant organs (Jeune et al. Prothoracicotropic hormone and/or ecdysone secretion in Holometabola is negatively controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) (Truman and Riddiford 2002). Taylor and Hickey (1992, 1996), Loconte (1996), and Krassilov (1997, 2002), among others. "The idea is that plants have a plastic and modular developmental system such that simple changes in regulatory genes need not lead to inviability but can generate novel, potentially favored phenotypes." The preceding quotation is from page 83 of D. "Ontogeny in land plants can be viewed as a complex, partly hierarchical, series of developmental processes, which together with their underlying genetic controls, provide the raw material for morphological innovation. The interface between development and ecology may be studied from such perspectives, among others (Enquist et al. "In theoretical morphospaces, the axes of the reduced space are determined by a small set of parameters of morphogenetic or other biological models, derived from theoretical considerations rather than from the organisms themselves" (page 841, Chartier et al. Scaling studies of reproductive short- (spur-) shoots of living Ginkgo are particularly revealing to plant morphologists (Christianson and 2009). Cessation of growth in holometabolous insects leading to a new moulting cycle is triggered by PTTH that initiates the ecdysone growth regulatory cascade. Coevolution between phytophagous insect antagonists and Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic seed plant hosts at the level of their respective developmental tool kits with focus on selective forces that drive the logic of transcriptional regulation is proposed in the following essay to explain the origin and evolution of flowering plants and certain Holometabola. A second species of Degeneria has been reported (A. Despite several decades of effort by morphologists, paleobotanists, and plant biologists, the origin of angiosperms remains enigmatic and mysterious. Taylor and Hickey (1996 [a book and one paper]), D. Interestingly, many naturally-occurring plant sesquiterpene esters and lactones are bioactive and exhibit insecticidal properties. Molecular diversification of the Hox gene complex over the course of 600 million years of metazoan evolution is analogous to the 400 million year old molecular evolution of MIKC-type MADS-box genes and related cis-acting TFs of land plants (Theißen et al. Evolution of the Hox complex probably involved small gene duplications, WGDs, divergence of homeodomains, disintegration of the Hox cluster at breakpoints, and rapid changes in the nucleotide sequence of homeodomains (S. Shrub-like lignophytes or small trees produced reproductive modules, which were exploited by flying insects. 2007) and caste polyphenism in holometabolous wasps (J. Understanding the nature and timing of early molecular diversification of homeotic selector genes, developmental proteins, nuclear receptor proteins, and cis-acting TFs of both invertebrate antagonists and vascular plant hosts might be a critical first step in understanding the Paleozoic origin of holometabolous insects and their putative coevolution with the earliest angiosperms. I discuss potential coevolution of insect and seed plant helix-turn-helix proteins, specifically Engraled and Leafy enzymes that bind to cis-regulatory promoters controlling downstream expression of genes determining paedomorphic insect body patterns and plant cone and floral organ development. (2017) report low support ( The Fiji Islands have long been of interest to biogeographers (Raven and Axelrod 1974, Thorne 1986, Morley 2001), to geologists as a tectonic puzzle (Rodda and Kroenke 1984), and to botanists as a "cradle of flowering plants" (title, Chapter 12, Takhtajan 1969), where some "missing links in the chain of angiosperm phylogeny" are known (page 141, Between Assam and Fiji, Takhtajan 1969). There are several conifers endemic to the Fiji Archipelago including Agathis vitiensis, Acmopyle sahniana, Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Dacrydium nausoriense, Dacrydium nidulum, and Decussocarpus vitiensis. The only known species at the time, Degeneria vitiensis (pictured below), combines a number of primitive features that have ignited many debates (I. Some paleontologists regard the problem of flowering plant origins, "... Juvenile hormone and its homologs are integral in vitellogenesis (Hartfelder 2000), regulation of moult cycles (Truman and Riddiford 2002), and caste development and behavior in social Hymenoptera (Guidugli et al. Were bioactive brassinolides and sesquiterpenes manufactured by Paleozoic seed plants used as chemical warfare agents to affect growth, development, and behaviour of herbivorous insects? Another avenue of deduction somehow ties-in insect evo-devo of wings from gill halteres with increases in atmospheric oxygen during the De CARB. The place and time to begin a molecular phylogenetic analysis is the late Frasnian-Famennian Age hypoxic icehouse that extended into the Tornaisian Age of the Carboniferous Period.
Studies of evolving allometries and body plans might help us understand a possible coevolutionary origin of angiosperms and certain clades of holometabolous phytophagous insect antagonists. Molecular control over arthropod growth varies among the major clades of insects (Grimaldi and Engel 2005).